Thu Jun 09 10:09:26 CST 2022
As the name suggests, fast wire processing is named because the electrode wire runs at high speed during the cutting process. Fast wire processing machine tool is an original electric processing machine tool in my country. After decades of continuous improvement and development, it has become an important processing method in the manufacturing industry. It can meet the requirements of medium and low-end mold processing and other complex parts manufacturing, and occupies a considerable weight in the middle and low-end market.
The biggest advantage of fast wire processing machine tools is that it has a good performance-price ratio. Because of its practicability and economy, it has a large domestic market. The traditional fast wire processing adopts a one-step cutting process, the processing efficiency is about 40 mm²/min, the surface roughness is about Ra3.0μm, the surface has obvious lines, and the processing accuracy is about 0.02 mm.
In order to improve the processing quality, the manufacturers of fast wire processing machine tools have improved the relevant parts of the machine tools by referring to the cutting process for many times, and the so-called "intermediate wire cutting machine tools" have appeared. The numerical control precision of the machine tool, pulse power supply, wire feeding system, process database and many other process technologies have been greatly improved. Improve the machining accuracy and improve the surface quality.
At present, the technical indicators of the intermediate wire processing machine tool: the efficiency of one cutting is 180㎜²/min, the surface roughness after multiple cutting is Ra≤1.0μm, the average efficiency at this time is 50㎜²/min, and the surface gloss is There is no obvious cutting stripe, the machining accuracy is 0.01mm, and the wire loss is ≤0.01mm/200,000mm². These performance indicators seem to be relatively good, but it should be noted that obtaining these indicators requires ensuring that all aspects are well ensured. Once there are discrepancies, such as changes in the concentration of the working fluid and the loss of the electrode wire, it will affect the stability of the processing quality.
Typical manufacturers of wire-feeding machine tools in production include Suzhou Sanguang, Suzhou Hanqi, Shanghai Tello, Beijing Ande, Suzhou Baoma, Suzhou Xinhuo, and Shanghai Dazhong.
With the continuous improvement of the manufacturing accuracy and surface quality requirements of precision, complex and long-life stamping dies, the fast wire processing technology can no longer meet the manufacturing requirements of precision molds. This situation has promoted the rapid development of slow wire processing technology. It has reached a very high level and is irreplaceable by other processing technologies.
(1) Improve machining accuracy
Multiple cutting technology is the fundamental means to improve the machining accuracy and surface quality of slow-moving wire. Generally, it is formed by one-time cutting, the second-time cutting improves the accuracy, and the third-time cutting improves the surface quality.
Corners collapse due to wire lag when cutting corners. In order to improve the corner cutting accuracy, more dynamic corner processing strategies are adopted. Such as: automatic change of processing speed, automatic adjustment of water pressure, control of processing energy, etc.
The high-precision finishing circuit adopted by the advanced slow wire-feeding machine tool is an effective technology to improve the flatness of the workpiece, so that the machining accuracy of thick parts can be significantly improved; in order to carry out small rounded corners, narrow slits, narrow grooves and fine parts For micro-finishing, the top CNC low-speed wire EDM machine can use 0.02 ~ 0.03 mm electrode wire for cutting.
In order to ensure high-precision processing, the mechanical accuracy of the machine tool, the accuracy of pulse power supply, and the accuracy of servo control (including the control of mechanical motion, pulse parameters, wire feeding system and working fluid system) have reached a very high level. The water temperature cooling device is adopted to make the internal temperature of the machine tool the same as the water temperature, which reduces the thermal deformation of the machine tool; the closed-loop digital AC (DC) current servo control system is adopted to ensure excellent dynamic performance and high positioning accuracy, and the machining accuracy can be controlled within a few microns Precision positioning can achieve 0.1μm equivalent control; immersion processing is used to reduce thermal deformation of the workpiece; motor servo, closed-loop electrode wire tension control; voltage modulation tool setting power supply is used to achieve high-precision tool setting, and the tool setting accuracy can reach 0.002 ㎜ , does not damage the workpiece, whether dry or wet.
(2) Surface quality is improving day by day
The advanced slow wire processing machine adopts the non-electrolysis-proof pulse power supply with zero average voltage, and the damage of electrolysis has been reduced to a minimum. In addition, due to the improvement of pulse power supply, high peak value and narrow pulse width (microsecond level) are generally used, and most of the materials are thrown out of the gas phase, which takes away a lot of heat, and the surface temperature of the workpiece cannot rise, and the phenomenon of cracking is great Reduce; not only high processing efficiency, but also greatly improve the surface quality. The use of electroless power supply for WEDM can control the surface metamorphic layer to be less than 2μm. The wear resistance of the cutting edge of the carbide die is no different from that of grinding, and even better than mechanical grinding. More and more parts are processed "replaced by cutting".
(3) Improve processing efficiency
Due to the development of nanosecond high-peak current pulse power supply technology and detection, control, and anti-interference technology, the processing efficiency of slow-moving wire-feeding machine tools is also constantly improving. ²/min. The processing efficiency of larger thickness workpieces has practical technical improvement. For example, when cutting workpieces with a thickness of 300 mm, the processing efficiency can reach 170 mm²/min. For the processing of workpieces with varying thicknesses, by automatically detecting the thickness of the workpieces and automatically adjusting the processing parameters to prevent wire breakage, the highest processing efficiency in this state is achieved.
In addition, the fast automatic wire threading technology introduced by the advanced slow wire processing machine tool, the automatic wire threading time is less than 15 s, which improves the efficiency of processing operations; Wire switching processing. Thick wire is used for the first cutting, generally with a wire diameter of 0.25 mm, to improve processing efficiency and can be cut without core; then use thin wire for trimming, generally using 0.10 mm thin wire, to cut small rounded corners, and can By improving the accuracy, the overall cutting time can be saved by 30% to 50%.
(4) Development of automation, intelligence and informatization
In the process of processing, in order to reduce human intervention and ensure that the expected process indicators are achieved, the automation, intelligence and informatization of slow-moving wire processing have achieved corresponding development.
The complete process expert system of the slow-moving wire processing machine provides a complete set of parameters according to the processing requirements. Not only includes common electrode wire grades and corresponding workpiece materials, but also provides processing parameters for special materials such as PCD, PCBN, etc., which can be determined according to whether the upper and lower nozzles are in contact with the workpiece, the distance is large, whether it is refined in the cutting wind, or the open surface is refined. Repair, precision, surface roughness and efficiency which priority processing strategy to generate their own specifications; discharge expert system to deal with random factors in cutting, cutting in, cutting out, section change, center cutting, near-edge cutting, large In the case of high-speed cutting of cross-sections, self-adaptive control strategies and automatic control functions are used in the processing process to obtain continuous, stable and efficient processing.
The automatic no-hole detection function is also very practical. During automatic skip processing, if the pre-hole is forgotten to be punched or the hole position is offset, the machine tool will automatically move to the next pre-hole, which can prevent the machine from shutting down when unmanned processing is performed. When a short circuit occurs after threading the wire, it can automatically search for the position to eliminate the short circuit, which improves the reliability of continuous unmanned operation.
The CNC system of the machine tool is equipped with a standardized mechanical interface to form an intelligent manufacturing system. Through the manipulator of the 3R system or the EROWA system, the automatic exchange of workpieces (pallets) can be easily realized. With the expert system and automatic electrode wire exchange technology, it can be Complete the entire processing process automatically.